EXPLORE CHINA THROUGH PHOTOGRAPHY
xxxx   BEIJING province   北京市 xxxx

  As the capital city of China, Beijing is the center of national politics and culture, and a hub of Chinese international interaction. Alongside Xian, Luoyang, Kaifeng, Nanjing and Hangzhou, Beijing is one of the Six Ancient Cities in China. With a population of about 17 million people, Beijing contains 18 districts and counties, which are further subdivided into 273 third-level administrative units at the township level.

Situated at the northwest edge of the North China Plain, Beijing City is next to Tianjin City, to its southeast. The landform of this city basically falls away from northwest to southeast.
Beijing was also known as Peking by the Western world before 1949. It is one of the famed ancient cities in the world. With more than two-thousand years of history, Beijing City is a place of military importance. It had consistently been the capital of the Liao, Jin, Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties. In the early nineteen-twenties, Beijing became the cradle of Chinese new democratic revolution. The May Fourth Movement against imperialism and feudalism began here in 1919. And in Oct. 1, 1949, Beijing became the capital city of the PRC, which opened a new page in this ancient city.
 
 
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  BEIJING  Municipality
 
Jietai Temple      戒台寺   GPS: 39.8717, 116.08631
Constructed in the Tang Dynasty (618-907), covering an area of 11 acres (4 hectares), the Jietai Temple is a Buddhist temple in Mentougou District in western Beijing. It Major modifications were made during the Ming and Qing Dynasties.     
 
       

Badaling Great Wall    八达岭长城   GPS: 40.35576, 116.01748
The Great Wall at Badaling was completed in 1505 (the 18th year of the reign of Hong Zhi, an emperor of the Ming Dynasty). This section's construction was led by General Qi Jiguang, famous for defending China from Japanese pirates. It is 7.6 km long. The wall is on average 7.8 meters tall and 5.7 meters wide, which allowed five horses to gallop abreast and ten men to march shoulder to shoulder.  
 
       

Huanghuacheng Great Wall     黄花城长城   GPS: 40.41657, 116.3468
To enhance the defense of the northern border, the emperors of the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644) built an outer Great Wall and an inner Great Wall. The Huanghuacheng section is part of the inner Great Wall that connects the Mutianyu section of the Great Wall in the east, via Jiankou, and Juyong Pass in the west.  
 
       

Juyongguan Great Wall     居庸关长城 GPS: 40.28941, 116.07624
The Juyong Pass Great Wall section was built by the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644) in this strategic valley that allowed direct access to Beijing. It was built during the reign of Emperor Zhu Yuanzhang (1368-1398). He was the first emperor of the Ming Empire, and he wanted to fend off attacks from Mongolians who wanted to recapture the empire.   
       

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Tanzhe temple      潭柘寺南口   GPS: 39.87027, 116.03853
The Tanzhe Temple is a Buddhist temple situated in the Western Hills, a mountainous area in western Beijing. At one time, it was one of the most important temples in the nation. . It was originally established in the Western Jin Dynasty (307 AD). So far, it has existed for more than 1,700 years. It is the first temple built after the introduction of Buddhism to Beijing.  
 
       

Ming Dynasty Tombs      明十三陵   GPS: 40.29149, 116.23917
The Ming tombs are a collection of mausoleums built by the emperors of the Ming dynasty of China. The first Ming emperor's tomb is located near his capital Nanjing. However, the majority of the Ming tombs are located in a cluster near Beijing and collectively known as the Thirteen Tombs of the Ming Dynasty.    
 
       
    Changling Tomb     十三陵-长陵 GPS: 40.30037, 116.2491
Changling Tomb, the joint burial tomb of Emperor Yongle and Empress Qian, is located in the southern range of Tianshou Mountain. Emperor Yongle has ruled for 22 years, making great progress in political, economic, military, cultural and diplomatic fields.
       
    Dingling Tomb      明定陵 GPS: 40.29586, 116.22352
Construction of Dingling Tomb started in 1584 and was finished in 6 years later. In 1620, Emperor Wanli was buried here with his two empresses.
       
    The Sacred Way   (God Road)   神路 GPS: 40.25312, 116.22348
Constructed since 1435, the 7.3 kilometers long Sacred Way is as a matter of fact the main way leading to the thirteen imperial tombs. The way starts from the stone memorial archway and ends at the gate of the Chang Mausoleum.
       
       

Pekin Man (Zhoukoudian)    周口店北京人遗址 GPS: 39.69008, 115.92985
Peking Man (Homo erectus pekinensis, formerly known by the junior synonym Sinanthropus pekinensis) is a group of fossil specimens of Homo erectus, dated from roughly 750,000 years ago, discovered in 1929–37 during excavations at Zhoukoudian (Chou K'ou-tien) near Beijing (at the time spelled Peking).    
       

  BEIJING City  (City and City life)
 
Panjiayuan Antique Market  古董市场潘家园 GPS: 39.87536, 116.4594
Panjiayuan Antique Market first opened its gates in the 1980s, starting as a humble roadside hutong market selling small handicrafts and artwork. Back in the day, trading art and other such items was forbidden in China, so the market operated in secret, earning it the nickname Panjiayuan Ghost Market. But as time passed and the demand for antiques and crafts grew, so did the market. The market is open all week, but the street stalls are only open on the weekends and the best time to go is early on Saturday or Sunday.    
 

Architecture   GPS: na
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Local life   GPS: na
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TV tower- City View      中央广播电视塔   GPS: 39.91956, 116.30631
China Central Television Tower was built in 1987. It is 386.5 meters high. It reaches 405 meters plus the lightning rod. The observation platform is situated on the 22nd floor with a height of 238 meters.
It is the largest open observation platform among the towers in the world. It provides a panoramic view of the Beijing City.
 
 
 

Beijing West Railway Station   北京西   GPS: 39.89483, 116.3211
Beijing West Railway Station, or Beijing West for short, was completed in early 1996. It is one of three major railway stations in Beijing.  
 
 

Beijing Airport   北京首都国际机场 GPS: 40.07985, 116.60311
Beijing Capital International Airport is the main international airport serving Beijing. It is located 32 km northeast of Beijing's city centre.  
 

  BEIJING City  (Entertainment)
 
Beijing Acrobatic Show   朝阳剧场   GPS: 39.92244, 116.46261
With a history of more than three thousand years, Chinese acrobatics has been praised as “A pearl of Oriental art”. When watching a Chinese acrobatics show, you will be strongly attracted both mentally and physically. The acrobatic show is combined on the base of dance and opera arts, compositions, stage design, costume, light and sound.  
 
 

Peking Opera    京剧   GPS: na
Peking opera, or Beijing opera, is the most dominant form of Chinese opera which combines music, vocal performance, mime, dance and acrobatics. It arose in Beijing in the mid-Qing dynasty and became fully developed and recognized by the mid-19th century.  
 
 

Beijing Zoo - Pandas      北京动物园 GPS: 39.94, 116.33846
The Beijing Zoo is a zoological park in Beijing, the capital of the China. Founded in 1906 during the late Qing dynasty, it is the oldest zoo in China and oldest public park in northern China. The zoo is also a center of zoological research that studies and breeds rare animals from various continents.
 

  BEIJING City  (Historical and Famous Places)
 
Museum of the War of Chinese People's Resistance Against Japanese Aggression  
中国人民抗日战争纪念馆
  GPS: 39.85227, 116.2258
The Museum of the War of Chinese People's Resistance Against Japanese Aggression or Chinese People's Anti-Japanese War Memorial Hall is the most comprehensive museum in China about the Second Sino-Japanese War.
The Second Sino-Japanese War was a military conflict between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from July 7, 1937 to September 9, 1945. It ended with the unconditional surrender of Japan on September 2, 1945. The museum is located inside the Wanping Fortress near the Lugou Bridge (Marco Polo Bridge). It was opened on the 50th anniversary of the outbreak of Second Sino-Japanese War on July 7, 1987.
 
 
 

Beijing Bell tower    钟楼   GPS: 39.94239, 116.39588
The bell tower was first built in the ninth year of Zhiyuan (1272 AD) as the central court of the Wan Ning Temple in the Yuan Dynasty, but was destroyed in the war. It was rebuilt with the Drum Tower in Yongle in the 18th year (1420 AD) of the Ming Dynasty as a bell tower, but unfortunately it was destroyed again. It was reconstructed in Qianlong in the 10th year (1745 AD) of the Qing Dynasty and was finished two years later.  
 
 

Beijing Drum tower     鼓楼 GPS: 39.94059, 116.39591
The Drum Tower was built in1272 during the reign of Kublai Khan. At that time it was known as the Tower of Orderly Administration. In 1420, under the Ming Emperor Yongle, the building was reconstructed to the east of the original site and in 1800 under the Qing Emperor Jiaqing, large-scale renovations were carried out. In 1924, the name of the building was changed to the Tower of Realizing Shamefulness. The first level of the Drum Tower is a solid square terrace four meters high, 55.6 meters long and 30 meters wide.  
 

Forbidden city  (Palace Museum)  故宫博物院 GPS: 39.91634, 116.39715
The Forbidden City is a palace complex in central Beijing, China. It houses the Palace Museum, and was the former Chinese imperial palace and state residence of the Emperor of China from the Ming dynasty to the end of the Qing dynasty, between 1420 and 1924.    
 

Beijing Ancient Observatory  北京古观象台   GPS: 39.90758, 116.43471
The Beijing Ancient Observatory is a pretelescopic observatory located in Beijing, China. The observatory was built in 1442 during the Ming dynasty, and expanded during the Qing. It received major reorganization and many new, more accurate instruments from Europeans in 1644.
 
 

Beijing City Walls    北京明城墙   GPS: 39.90136, 116.43565
The old Beijing's city gate and city wall, basically rebuilt in the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), was composed of four cities including the Forbidden City as the core, the palace wall in the periphery, the inner city and the outer city. The inner city has nine city gates whereas the outer city has seven city gates.  
 
 

Beijing Hutongs     胡同 GPS: 39.94104, 116.39122
The Mongolians captured the Beijing area in 1215, and in 1271 they started to build their Yuan Empire (1271–1368). It was recorded that in the Yuan Empire a 36-meter-wide road was called a standard street, a 18-meter-wide one was a small street, and a 9-meter-wide lane was named a hutong. In Beijing, hutongs are alleys formed by lines of siheyuan, traditional courtyard residences. Many neighbourhoods were formed by joining one siheyuan to another to form a hutong.  
 

Marco Polo bridge    卢沟桥   GPS: 39.85024, 116.21906
The Lugou Bridge (Marco Polo Bridge, the bridge was so named and known to the west owing to the description of the famous Italian explorer Marco Polo) is the oldest existing multi-arched stone bridge in the Beijing area. Construction of the original bridge on this site commenced in 1189 and ended in 1192 and was later reconstructed in 1698. The Lugou Bridge is 266.5 meters in length and 9.3 meters in width, supported on 11 piers.  
 
 

Beijing Summer palace    颐和园   GPS: 39.99998, 116.27546
ZThe Summer Palace in Beijing integrates numerous traditional halls and pavilions into the Imperial Garden conceived by the Qing emperor Qianlong between 1750 and 1764 as the Garden of Clear Ripples. It covers an area of 2.9 square kilometres, three-quarters of which is water.  
 
 

Tiananmen square    天安门广场 GPS: 39.90548, 116.39763
Tiananmen Square, literally the "Gate of Heavenly Peace" Square, covers about 40.5 hectares (100 acres), making it one of the largest open-air squares in the world.
Tiananmen gate was first built in the 1420s during the early Ming Dynasty. Tiananmen gate served as the first point of access to the various gates leading into the Forbidden City to the north. When the Qing army unseated the Ming Dynasty in the 1650s, a detachment of Qing soldiers damaged or destroyed the original gate.It was reconstructed in 1651.
 
 

  BEIJING City  (Parks and Gardens)
 
Behai park    北海公园 GPS: 39.92544, 116.38926
Beihai Park, also known as the Winter Palace, is a public park and former imperial garden located in the northwestern part of the Imperial City, Beijing. First built in the 11th century, it is among the largest of all Chinese gardens and contains numerous historically important structures, palaces, and temples.
 

Singing Birds   GPS: na
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Jingshan park    景山公园   GPS: 39.92509, 116.39684
Jingshan (literally "Prospect Hill," also known as Coal Hill) Park was a part of the Forbidden City until the early 1900s when the walls were pulled down and a road cut through it, destroying several gates and buildings between the park and the rear entrance of the palace. The site was a private park reserved for the use of the emperor in the Yuan dynasty (1279-1368). During the Ming dynasty (1368-1644), an artificial hill with five peaks was made, utilizing earth excavated when the moat of the Imperial Palace was dug.  
 
 

Lianhuachi park    莲花池公园 GPS: 39.89201, 116.31202
The Lianhuachi Park with an area of 44.6 hectares (110 acres), is a modern garden and is well-known for its splendid lotus scenery. The park was built on the site of a place of historical interest-the Lotus Pond. The pond is regarded as the birthplace of the city of Beijing, and bears a history of over 3,000 years. The capital of the Jin Dynasty (1115-1234) was built to the southwest of the Lotus Pond in 1153 and the pond provided most of water for the capital at that time.  
 

Tiantan Park (Temple of Heaven)    
天坛公园
  GPS: 39.88218, 116.4066
The total area of Temple of Heaven Park is about 270 hectares (670 acres), but the main buildings are on a south-north line about 750 meters long in the middle of the park.
The most striking building of the Temple of Heaven is the tall, circular Hall of Prayer for Good Harvests, in the north of the park. In the south of the park lie the Imperial Vault of Heaven and Circular Mound Altar. The areas are connected by a 360-meter long, 4-meter wide walkway, called Danbi Qiao.
 
 
 

     
Yuanmingyuan park    圆明园遗址公园 GPS: 40.00809, 116.29821
The Old Summer Palace, known in Chinese as Yuanming Yuan, and originally called the Imperial Gardens, was a complex of palaces and gardens. It is 8 kilometres northwest of the walls of the former Imperial City section of Beijing. Constructed throughout the 18th and early 19th centuries, the Old Summer Palace was the main imperial residence of Qianlong Emperor of the Qing dynasty and his successors.    
 

  BEIJING City  (Temples and Religion)
 
Temple of the Azure clouds     碧云寺   GPS: 39.99809, 116.18965
The Temple of Azure Clouds or Biyun Temple, was built in the 14th century (possibly in 1331), during the Yuan dynasty (1271–1368) and was expanded in 1748. The temple, which is built on six different levels over an elevation of nearly 100 meters, is known for its fine scenery. The temple also includes the Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall.  
 
 

 The Eight Great Temples ( Badachu) 
八大处公园
  GPS: 39.95698, 116.18553
The Badachu is a complex of monasteries which means "Eight Great Sites" that refers to the eight Buddhist temples and nunneries scattered across the Cuiwei, Pingpo, and Lushi hills.
Chang'an Temple (长安寺), (Temple of Eternal Peace).
Lingguang Temple (灵光寺), (Temple of Divine Light).
Sanshan Nunnery (三山庵), (Nunnery of Three-hills).
Dabei Temple (大悲寺), (Temple of Great Mercy).
Longquan Nunnery (龙泉庵), (Nunnery of Dragon Spring).
Xiangjie Temple (香界寺), Temple of the Fragrant World).
Baozhu Cave (宝珠洞), (Cave of Precious Pearl).
Zhengguo Temple (正果寺), (Temple of Thoroughly Transform.)
 
 
 

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Fragrant Hills    香山公园 GPS: 39.99133, 116.19382
Fragrant Hill was used during the the Jin Dynasty era, and it has more 800 years of history. Today, Fragrant Hill is described as a famous scenic spot that has a long history and a beautiful landscape. It occupies an area of more than 16,000 square meters. The highest mountain is called Censer Peak. It has an altitude of 557 meters.    
 

Beijing Temple of Confucius    北京孔庙   GPS: 39.9469, 116.41461
The temple in Beijing was built in 1302, and imperial officials used it to pay their formal respects to Confucius until 1911. The compound was enlarged twice, once during the Ming dynasty and again during the Qing; it now occupies roughly 20,000 square meters (220,000 sq ft). It is the second-largest Confucian temple in China, after the one in Confucius's hometown of Qufu.
 
 

Temple of the Moon   月坛   GPS: 39.91647, 116.35228
The Temple of the Moon was built in 1530 during the Ming Dynasty for use in ritual sacrifice to the Moon by the Emperor of China. The altar and the surrounding grounds are within a public park.  
 
 

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Other Temple   GPS: na
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Temple of Heaven    天坛公园   GPS: 39.88218, 116.4066
Originally constructed during the Ming Dynasty in 1420, the Temple of Heaven was a sacrificial temple used by emperors during Ming and Qing dynasties to appease the heavens, bring prosperity to the empire and ensure good crops for the coming year. Sitting in a large park, the three main altars – the iconic Hall of Prayer for Good Harvests, the Imperial Vault of Heaven and the Circular Mound Altar.    
 
 

Lama Temple     雍和宫 GPS: 39.94767, 116.41729
Beijing Lamasery Temple is called “Yonghegong” in Chinese which literally means” Harmony and Peace”. “Yonghegong” is a romanization form (pinyin) of the Chinese characters – 雍和宫 (Lama Temple). Yonghegong Lama Temple was originally built as the residence of Emperor Yongzheng when he was still a prince. After he came to the throne (Emperor Yongzheng), he changed his old residence into a temporary palace called “Yonghegong” in 1725. In 1744, his successor, Emperor Qianlong turned the palace into a lama temple.  
 

Temple of White clouds (Baiyuan Guan)
  白云观
GPS: 39.9003, 116.34374
The Baiyuan Guan was first built in 739, with the name of Tianchang (天长, meaning 'celestial perpetuity') Taoist Temple, and it soon became the most influential Taoist temple in China. In 1148 during the Jin Dynasty, it was renamed Changchun Gong (长春宫, meaning ‘Palace of Eternal Spring’). It was burned down and rebuilt several times, and most of the buildings we can see now were built in the Ming (1368–1644) and Qing (1644–1911) dynasties.   
 

 
 
 
 
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